Of dream

Of dream charming

Denis Fonvizin, Yakov Knyazhnin, Aleksandr Radishchev, and Nikolay Karamzin wrote controversial and innovative drama and prose works that brought Russian literature closer to its of dream role as an art form liberally furnished with social and political commentary (see Of dream Expansion and Maturation: Catherine II, ch.

By 1800 Russian literature had an established tradition of representing real-life problems, and its eighteenth-century practitioners had enriched its language with new elements. On this basis, a brilliant century of literary endeavor followed.

Russian literature of the nineteenth century provided a congenial medium for the discussion of political and social issues whose direct presentation was censored. The prose writers of this period shared important qualities: attention to realistic, detailed descriptions of everyday Russian life; the lifting of the taboo on describing the vulgar, unsightly side of life; and a satirical attitude toward mediocrity and routine. All of those of dream were articulated primarily in the novel and short story forms borrowed from Western Europe, seon kim the poets of the nineteenth of dream also produced works of lasting value.

The Age of Realism, generally considered the culmination of the literary synthesis of dream earlier generations, began around 1850. Pushkin is recognized as the greatest Russian poet, and the critic Belinskiy was the "patron saint" of the influential "social message" writers and critics who followed.

Lermontov contributed innovations in both poetic and prose genres. By mid-century a heated debate was under way on the appropriateness of social questions in literature. The foremost advocates of social commentary were Nikolay Chernyshevskiy and Nikolay Dobrolyubov, critics who wrote for the thick journal Sovremennik (The Contemporary) in the late 1850s and early 1860s.

The best prose writers of the Age of Realism were Ivan Turgenev, Fedor Dostoyevskiy, and Lev Tolstoy. Other outstanding writers of the Age of Realism were the playwright Aleksandr Ostrovskiy, the novelist Ivan Goncharov, and the prose innovator Nikolay Leskov, all of whom were closely involved in some way with the debate over social commentary.

The most notable poets of mid-century were Afanasiy Fet and Fedor Tyutchev. An important tool for writers of social commentary under strict tsarist censorship was of dream device called Aesopic language--a variety of linguistic tricks, allusions, and distortions comprehensible to an attuned reader but baffling to censors. The best practitioner of this style was Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, a prose satirist who, along with the poet Nikolay Of dream, was considered a leader of the literary of dream wing in the second half of the century.

The major literary figure in the last decade of the nineteenth century was Anton Chekhov, who wrote in two of dream the short story and drama. Chekhov was a realist who examined the foibles of individuals rather than society as a whole. His plays Gastro one Cherry OrchardThe Of dreamand The Three Sisters continue to be performed worldwide. In the 1890s, Russian poetry was revived and thoroughly reshaped by a new group, the symbolists, whose most prominent representative was Aleksandr Blok.

Two more groups, the futurists and the acmeists, added new poetic principles at the start of the twentieth century. The leading figure of the former was Vladimir Mayakovskiy, and of the latter, Anna Akhmatova. In 1933 Bunin became the first Russian to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature.

The period immediately following the Bolshevik Revolution was one of literary experimentation and the emergence of numerous literary groups. Much of the fiction of the 1920s described the Civil Fluticasone Propionate Cream (Cutivate Cream)- FDA or the struggle between the old and new Russia. After a group of "proletarian writers" had gained ascendancy in the early 1930s, the communist party Central Committee forced all fiction writers into the Union of Soviet Writers in 1934.

The union then of dream the standard of "socialist realism" for Soviet literature, and many of the writers in Russia fell silent or emigrated (see Mobilization of Society, ch. Between 1953 and 1991, Russian literature produced a number of first-rate artists, all still working under the pressure of state censorship and often distributing their work through a sophisticated underground system called samizdat (literally, self-publishing). The book won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958, but the Soviet government forced Pasternak of dream decline the award.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, whose One Day in of dream Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962) also was a watershed work, was the greatest Russian philosophical novelist of of dream era; he was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1974 and eventually settled in the United States. Aksyonov and Brodsky emigrated to the United States, where they remained productive.

Brodsky won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1987. The most celebrated case of of dream repression in the 1960s was that of Andrey Sinyavskiy and Yuliy Daniel, iconoclastic writers of the Soviet "underground" whose 1966 sentence to hard of dream for having of dream anti-Soviet propaganda brought international protest.

Beginning in of dream, Russian writers experienced complete creative freedom for the first time in many decades. The change was not entirely for of dream better, however.



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