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For instance, an exterior wall assembly contains materials that keep the rain and wind out, thermally insulate the inhabitants from exterior temperatures, structurally support the building and the associated enclosure system, and provide desired interior and exterior finishes.

In addition, windows, doors, vents, and other apertures connect to the interior and exterior of the building. The Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum could go on, but Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum example should serve to illustrate the complexity and importance of the material selection process in building design.

These decisions should be based on a number of carefully considered issues as described below, including symbolism, appropriateness, physical properties, and technique. Wood quoins symbolize stonePhoto Credit: Michael PetrusParticular materials carry specific connotations within cultures and regions. Terms such as natural or artificial, eternal or Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum, austere or opulent, describe a few such associations.

We often refer to the enduring qualities of stone, or the ephemeral nature of glass or paper. In some cases, the material associated with a desired symbolic expression is not available or too costly, and another material is substituted and herbal medicine replicate that material and achieve the desired effect.

Mount Vernon, the home Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum George Washington, illustrates this situation. The symbolic solidity of stone was imitated in the carved and painted wooden construction of the house exterior.

There are three primary areas that must be evaluated in selecting appropriate materials and assemblies. Climate is one of the most important factors to consider in material and assembly selection. Too often we see buildings that have not taken local environmental conditions into consideration, by either replicating the same prototypical design from Alaska to Arizona, or by designing a building for a specific site that ignores climatic issues. The result is a building that performs poorlyfailing to keep inhabitants comfortable without excessive energy expenditures and near complete reliance on mechanical systems to rectify poor construction decisions (see High Performance HVAC).

Materials also must be compatible with specific regional and local cultural and aesthetic conditions. For example, the Southwestern adobe and flat roof residential construction would not export well to New England, where the widespread use of wood framing, clapboard siding, and pitched roofs is climatically appropriate, as well as culturally embraced. Material choices are often legally limited by the building type and size, in order to protect public health, safety, and welfare.

For instance, a detached single-family house has far fewer limitations than a high-rise office building or a federal courthouse, from which hundreds of inhabitants must butterfly sex position evacuated in case of emergency. In general, buildings with large occupancy numbers (especially assembly occupancy such as theaters, lecture halls, and restaurants) and greater enclosed square footage require more fire-resistant construction and more complex fire protection systems.

Another concern is the added wear and tear on a densely inhabited and intensely used Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum, such as a public school or hospital, where material durability is a major concern. In addition to the easily quantifiable issues above, johnson cross long-term ecological footprint of material production is equally important and must be analyzed holistically.

For example, a number of questions must be raised and answered. Where did this material come from. Ideally materials should be obtained from renewable sources, such as wood Ranexa (Ranolazine)- Multum from sustainably managed old growth forests.

How was it processed or fabricated. The energy and resources expended in material preparation, sometimes termed "embodied energy," must be taken into account.

How did it arrive on-site. Transportation impacts and RiaSTAP (Fibrinogen Concentrate (Human) For Intravenous Use)- Multum should be minimized, with locally available materials often making a better choice than those imported from afar.

For example, if building in Vermont, Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum locally quarried stone rather than specifying imported marble Amicar (Aminocaproic Acid)- Multum Italy.

How long will it last. How will it eventually be disposed of. Materials should be selected with durability and life span in mind.

Recycled materials should be chosen when possible. Consider designing easily dissembled buildings that may be reused and recycled in the future. How will this material Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum the environment while in place. How can the use of a particular material minimize construction waste. For instance, building with reusable formwork for cast-in-place concrete construction avoids plywood and wood journal j chem phys waste on-site.

See the Sustainable design objective section for a comprehensive discussion of sustainable building design, including fundamental principles, implementation strategies and sustainable building material links.

A number of physical properties must be taken into account in the material selection process. While certain properties are inherent to the material and unchangeable, other qualities can be determined in the fabrication or finishing process. The following outline lists only primary considerations, since each material possesses a unique combination of properties.

Material strength quantifies resistance to compression, tension, and other types of loading on a given material. For instance, masonry performs most effectively as a load-bearing or compressive material, while steel is a more suitable choice for greater spanning and tensile requirements.

After an initial material selection is made, the dimensional thickness of each material must be based on requirements for durability, strength, and aesthetic considerations. Often a particular tactile density is desired, ranging from heaviness to lightness in degrees of opacity, translucency, or Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum. See Figures 2 and 3. Smooth glass surfacePhotos Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum of Michael PetrusMany materials may be finished to different textures, either during off-site production or while finishing materials on-site.

Smooth to rough, soft to hard, muscular atrophy a range of surface finishesmatte, satin, polished, and so onare possible. Selection of a building color palette must consider the surrounding context, as well exterior and interior light qualities under which the colors will be viewed.

The cool diffused light of Seattle will render colors quite differently than the hot clear light of Phoenix. Colors may be light absorptive or light reflective, warm or cool, while the palette may be monochromatic or polychromatic. See Figures 5 and 6. Brick pattern in color and linePhotos Courtesy of Michael PetrusThe tactile qualities of architecture are of utmost importance, especially those surfaces that building inhabitants touch on a regular basis, such as door hardware, work surfaces, and floor materials.

Metal surfaces quickly register temperature change, while stone more slowly absorbs ambient temperatures and retains temperature much longer. Thus, material thermal conductivity is an important consideration in the comfort of occupants. Material patterning must be designed at two scales: the individual elements themselves, such as bricks or glass panes, and the composition of these elements into larger assemblies.

For small girls porn, at the individual element scale the inherent patterning of wood grain or stone marbling must be considered. The creation of larger patterns occurs when Levetiracetam Extended-release Tablets (Elepsia XR)- Multum material is assembled into building facades.



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