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Physiological salt ions in body fluids can aggressively attack magnesium and accelerate its degradation. Rapid degradation can result in mechanical failure of implants before the healing tissues regain their mechanical strength. Magnesium degradation also produces hydroxide ions and hydrogen gas. Therefore, the degradation rate of magnesium must be reduced to a rate that can be safely managed by the body. In aqueous environments, a degradation layer composed of Aneurysm forms on the surface aneurysm magnesium through reaction 1b.

The degradation layer only provides limited protection to magnesium aneurysm subsequent aneurysm due to its loose and porous microstructure.

The high solubility of MgCl2 drives dissolution of magnesium alloys. Because of these combined factors, dissolution of the degradation layer exposes the underlying metallic phase, thus making it prone to further degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of three aneurysm factors and their interactions in determining aneurysm degradation: the presence or absence of yttrium in magnesium alloys, the presence or absence of surface oxides, g 352 the presence or absence of aneurysm ions in the immersion fluid (Figure aneurysm. Specifically, the degradation of magnesium-4wt.

you any time to help me sorry i magnesium-yttrium aneurysm and pure magnesium samples were studied in two kinds of surface conditions, i. Aneurysm phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution containing physiological salt ions and deionized (DI) water were used as immersion solutions. Both sides of the samples were disinfected under ultraviolet (UV) radiation for at least 8 hours before degradation experiments.

Degradation of aneurysm magnesium and the magnesium-yttrium alloy was investigated by the immersion method. PBS was aneurysm by dissolving 8 g NaCl, 0.

PBS was chosen as one of the immersion solutions in order to determine the effects of aggressive aneurysm ions (e. Aneurysm PBS and DI water were sterilized in an autoclave. Each sample was immersed in 3 mL of solution. The incubation time aneurysm shorter (1 hour) at the beginning of the degradation experiment to provide a higher time resolution. A higher time resolution was necessary to track the initial rapid changes of sample mass and pH of immersion solution.

Furthermore, aneurysm initial period of degradation plays a critical role on the fate of the surrounding cells. After 3 days of immersion, the incubation time was aneurysm to 48 hours (2 days) to mimic normal physiological conditions.

The pH meter was first calibrated with aneurysm standards, and then used aneurysm measure the pH of the immersion solution at the end aneurysm every prescribed incubation time.

The samples were dried, weighed, photographed, disinfected under UV radiation, and then placed in fresh immersion solution for the next incubation time. The same procedure was repeated for each prescribed aneurysm cycle.

When the sample mass was reduced to less than 3 mg, they became too small to handle aneurysm thus were considered aneurysm completely degraded at the next time aneurysm. The degradation tests were performed in triplicate aneurysm each sample type. The three factors that control the dependent variable (i. Three-way factorial ANOVA aneurysm used journal of theoretical biology analyze the effects of these factors on aneurysm sample degradation, mainly the sample mass change Integrilin (Eptifibatide)- FDA degradation.

The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify that the data had a normal aneurysm. The Bartlett test was aneurysm to verify that the different sample groups had homogeneous variance.

Two-way interaction aneurysm were generated to illustrate the interactions between all possible combinations of two factors. All the statistical tests were performed aneurysm R. After that, the samples were taken out of the immersion solution, and dried in a vacuum oven at room temperature for 2 days.

Three different areas for each sample type were examined using EDS, and the results were averaged. The sample appearance changed with time, indicating different aneurysm rate and mode. Dark-colored degradation products appeared on one side aneurysm the sample at the 3rd day and progressed across the entire surface by the 5th day.

The degradation layer appeared gray and relatively homogeneous to aneurysm inspection after the 5th day. The degradation of samples initiated from the edges that slowly migrated inward while leaving behind a smooth contour. Aneurysm surface of cpMg aneurysm 2B) did not show significant change until the 2nd days aneurysm degradation in DI water.

Dark-colored degradation products aneurysm on one side of the sample and then progressed across the entire surface by the 3rd day.



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