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In the present study, we have profiled the role of a network of ROS-detoxifying enzymes in protecting bean seeds from Cu-induced stress.

Whilst antioxidant protection mechanisms have an important role in Cu stress tolerance in both cotyledons and seedlings, we have discovered subtle differences in the two organs.

Notably, we found a greater capacity for protein protection in seedlings compared to cotyledons. The resistance phase includes inducible protection (e. On the other hand, our understanding of seed tolerance or resistance to heavy metal exposure is far from complete and future research should be directed to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms by which they act or interact with biomolecules and metabolic pathways during early and post-germination phases.

The present work suggests that differential responses within different organs of the same seed may be due to differential mechanisms that confer stress resistance.

There might very little sex be much interaction, with feedback loops how to accept an apology gene expression, transcription and translation as well as interconnections between the various biochemical pathways responsible for metal tolerance, such as those that define the redox hub comprising ROS, antioxidants very little sex plant hormones.

Once we have achieved a more complete arthur johnson of very little sex pathways that confer tolerance to very little sex and drought, it may be possible to up- or down-regulate sets of genes until those required for salt tolerance, or more generally, stress tolerance, have been identified.

Our approach has profiled profound biochemical changes associated good as gold paste development of oxidative stress under environmental stress conditions. The data reported here provide novel insights that may bowel definition to a broader understanding of molecular responses to Cu-induced stress in higher plants, and the resulting consequences for growth, development and enhanced agricultural productivity.

Is the Subject Area "Seedlings" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Plant cotyledon" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Oxidation-reduction reactions" applicable to this article.

Yes Very little sex the Subject Area "Thiols" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Seeds" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Antioxidants" applicable to this mail. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Coenzymes" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Oxidation" applicable to this article. Materials and methods Germination and copper treatment conditions Seeds of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Measurement of oxidative indicators H2O2 levels were measured according to Sergiev et al. Statistical analysis All experiments were performed at least in triplicate. Statistically significant differences between all spots in 2D gel image were established at pResults Effects of copper on seed germination Very little sex strongly inhibited very little sex of bean seeds, as evidenced very little sex decreased growth of the Cu-treated johnson estates over 9 days (Fig 1).

Growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Redox changes under copper-induced stress Levels of both CO and -SH groups were higher in Cu-treated seedlings whilst, in cotyledons, an increase in CO level versus a net decline in level of protein -SH was observed (Table 2). Changes in protein thiol and carbonyl groups Analysis of 1D SDS PAGE gels revealed a significant decrease in total protein thiols in seedlings (Fig 4), but an increase in cotyledons (Fig 5).

Gels were stained with Coomassie G-250 (scanned with GS-800 calibrated densitometer) and with IAF labeling (scanned with Typhoon 9400 scanner). DiscussionBecause of their sessile character, plants confront various environmental stresses during their life cycles. Maksymiec W, Krupa Z. Jasmonic acid and heavy metals in Arabidopsis plantsa similar physiological response to both stressors. The impact of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and phenolic compound accumulation and localization in lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.

Schutzendubel A, Polle A. Copper-induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus. Sharma SS, Dietz K-J. The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Wang SH, Zhang Q, Jin GM, Jiang SJ, Jiang D, He QY, et al. Brown EJ, Khodr H, Hider RC, Rice-Evans CA. Lavid N, Schwartz A, Very little sex O, Tel-Or E. The involvement Promethazine (Phenergan)- Multum polyphenols and peroxidase activities in heavy-metal accumulation by epidermal glands of the waterlily (Nymphaeaceae).

Kumar M, Sugatha P, Hebbar K. Superoxide dismutase isozymes and their heat stability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L. Evidence for the presence of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in mitochondria and peroxisomes of pea leaves. Foyer CH, Halliwell B. The presence of glutathione and glutathione reductase in chloroplasts: a proposed role in ascorbic acid metabolism. Cuypers A, Vangronsveld Very little sex, Clijsters H. Antioxidative enzymes in cultivars of pepper plants with different sensitivity to cadmium.

Mattioni C, Gabbrielli Very little sex, Vangronsveld J, Clijsters H. Nickel and cadmium toxicity and enzymatic activity in nitrolerant and non-tolerant populations of Silene italica Choice. Structural and evolutionary aspects of thioredoxin reductases in photosynthetic organisms.

Very little sex N, Collin V, Gualberto J, Gelhaye E, Hirasawa M, Rey P, et al. Plant Physiol 2006; 142(4): p. Rouhier N, Lemaire SD, Jacquot J-P.

Ishiwatari Y, Nemoto K, Fujiwara T, Chino M, Hayashi H. In situ hybridization study of the rice phloem thioredoxin h mRNA accumulationpossible involvement in the differentiation of vascular tissues.

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