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In short, diamagnetic materials naturally do not have magnetization in the absence of a magnetic field and they are repelled by an externally applied magnetic field.

Generally speaking, all matters possess the diamagnetic property because diamagnetism originates from the orbital motion of electrons. For the same reason, diamagnetism is a property of every atom and molecule.

However, this effect is so weak that, despite its universal occurrence, diamagnetism is usually masked by other effects, such as paramagnetism or ferromagnetism. It is difficult to observe truly diamagnetic phenomena. Usually substances that mostly display diamagnetic behavior and are generally thought of as nonmagnetic are said to be diamagnetic materials.

Practically all organic compounds and the majority of inorganic compounds are examples of diamagnetic materials. The strongest diamagnetic Megestrol Acetate Tablets (Megestrol Acetate Tablets)- FDA are pyrolytic carbon and bismuth.

Other notable diamagnetic materials include water, wood, diamond, living tissues (note that the last three examples are carbon-based), and many metals such as copper, gold, and mercury. Magnetic susceptibilities of some diamagnetic materials are shown at Table 3. Due to the strong diamagnetism of pyrolytic carbon, it is easy to demonstrate the magnetic levitation effect with the help of neodymium (NdFeB) permanent magnets and a thin slice of pyrolytic carbon (Figure 3.

The most spectacular part of this experiment is that all the components are at room temperature and no special conditions are required. As living organisms are diamagnetic, they can also exhibit magnetic levitation. However, because the magnitude of their magnetic susceptibility is much smaller compared to pyrolytic carbon or bismuth, these objects can levitate only in much stronger magnetic fields. In 2010, the Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands demonstrated a live frog levitation (Figure 3.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which can be used in medicine for human beings is 8 T). This is a great step forward because mice are biologically closer to human beings than frogs. However, the experiment required a superconducting magnet that makes the whole experiment more complicated.

Looking back at the periodic table in Figure 3. For paramagnetic materials, the directions of the induced magnetization M and the applied magnetic field H are the same. Due to the effective field, the object is pulled toward the area with the higher magnetic field (Figure 3.

Multiple theories have been proposed to explain paramagnetism in different types of materials. Megestrol Acetate Tablets (Megestrol Acetate Tablets)- FDA of them explain one specific type of material better, while others are valid for other types. Here Megestrol Acetate Tablets (Megestrol Acetate Tablets)- FDA consider the Langevin model of paramagnetism. The facility of paramagnetism comes from the unpaired noninteracting electrons.

In fact, in many atoms and in the vast majority of molecules, electrons are combined in pairs with their spins pointing in opposite directions obeying the Pauli exclusion principle, which Megestrol Acetate Tablets (Megestrol Acetate Tablets)- FDA in a zero magnetic moment.

The only magnetization left is from the orbital motion of such electrons pairs that gives rise to the diamagnetism considered in Section 3. However, some atoms have unpaired electron spins which results in nonzero permanent magnetic moments.

In the absence of an applied magnetic field, these magnetic moments are randomly oriented resulting in a zero net magnetic moment. In the presence of an numb face magnetic field H, the magnetic moments inside paramagnetic objects align with the field, resulting in an attracting force as shown in Figure 3.

However, after removal of the external magnetic field, paramagnetic objects do not retain their magnetization because without the alignment by the external force the internal magnetic moments disorient to achieve thermodynamic equilibrium.

In short, paramagnetic materials naturally do not have a magnetization and they are attracted by an externally applied magnetic field. Elements from chromium to copper, iron, cobalt, nickel, and rare-earth that sequence around gadolinium have this property. Their compounds and alloys are generally paramagnetic or even ferromagnetic. There is always competition between the diamagnetic contribution from the core electrons t-shirts the paramagnetic contribution from the outer shell unpaired electrons, and the resulting magnetic behavior depends on the relative strength of these two.

It should be noted Megestrol Acetate Tablets (Megestrol Acetate Tablets)- FDA paramagnetism, unlike diamagnetism, is temperature dependent. The randomizing thermal effect becomes significant at high temperature, making it hard to align the magnetic moments along the external magnetic field. This behavior was experimentally found and named as the Curie law 3.

As shown in Figure 3. Magnetic susceptibility is a constant for a diamagnetic material, while it obeys the Curie law for a Megestrol Acetate Tablets (Megestrol Acetate Tablets)- FDA one. Due to the absence of a strong permanent net magnetic moment, paramagnetic materials are not widely used.

However, they have one interesting application: they can be used brimonidine achieve extremely low temperatures.



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