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PCR from the mastitis milk additionally detected bacteria in culturally negative milk samples. Lower level sensitive drug was gentamicin and most of the isolates (90. Isolation, Molecular Identification and Multidrug Resistance Profiling of Bacteria Causing Lower level Mastitis in CowsBackground: Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) remains a serious threat to the Indian livestock sector lower level it causes significant economic loss due to endemic situation.

Systematic vaccinations of large ruminants over the years has lower level to a gradual reduction in the number of disease outbreaks. However incidence of FMD in small lower level has recorded an increase during the past few years. Sheep and goat population have not been lower level so far against FMD under the Eyes roche program (FMD-CP), and this paper highlights the occurrence of FMD in small ruminants in the absence of regular vaccination.

Methods: Investigation of FMD outbreaks among lower level population in Bellary and Tumakuru districts of Karnataka state was carried out. Clinical examination of the animals in the affected herd was carried out. The disease was associated with high mortality in lambs aged below three months pfizer e age. Samples were collected for detection of antigen in the tissues collected from the affected animals.

The serum samples from the recovered animals was also collected to check the antibody status in the affected herds. Results: Clinically, the affected adult sheep showed typical signs of FMD lower level mortality in young lambs was observed without apparent signs of disease. FMDV Serotype O was detected both in serotype differentiating antigen ELISA and multiplex PCR from heart tissue, tongue epithelium, spleen, and lower level nodes collected from the dead animals.

Histologically, heart tissues from FMD affected lambs showed severe myocarditis with marked aggregations of lymphocytes and mononuclear cells in the myocardium and perivascular spaces. Interstitial edema, multifocal myocardial degeneration, and necrosis with the fragmentation of cardiomyocyte were also noted. The presence of high titers of non-structural antibodies and structural antibodies against FMD virus serotype O in the serum collected from the lower level animals was recorded.

History of Lower level outbreaks in cattle and common grazing land for the livestock, as well as sheep shandy within the reach of these villages, maybe the major contributing factors for the outbreaks in these sheep populations.

Background: Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) remains a serious threat to the Indian livestock sector due to significant economic loss associated with it.

Systematic vaccination of large ruminants over the years has lead to a gradual reduction in the number of disease outbreaks in India. However exposure to FMDV infection in small ruminants has been recorded during the past few years (Rout et al.

Sheep lower level goat population have not been vaccinated so far against FMD under the FMD-Control program (FMD-CP). The present study highlighted the outbreak of FMD in small ruminants in Karnataka, India. Methods: During the period 2018-19, seven suspected FMD outbreaks among sheep population in Bellary and Tumakuru districts of Karnataka state were investigated.

All the samples were processed in the laboratory for the detection of FMD virus antigen by employing Serotype differentiating lower level detection ELISA and by multiplex PCR.

Heart tissue samples were also collected in buffered formalin for histopathology study and processed by routine paraffin embedding technique and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E).

Serum samples from the recovered animals were collected and screened by NSP-ELISA and LPB-ELISA to check the antibody status in the affected herd.

Result: Lower level total of seven suspected outbreaks of FMD involving 688 small ruminants lower level investigated. The outbreak of FMD due to FMDV serotype O was confirmed by Lower level and multiplex PCR assays. Clinically, the affected adult sheep showed typical signs of Lower level, while mortality in young lambs was observed without apparent signs lower level disease. Histologically, heart tissues from FMD affected lambs showed myocardial necrosis with marked aggregations of lymphocytes and neutrophils in the myocardium and perivascular spaces.

History of FMD outbreaks in cattle and common grazing land for the livestock, as well as sheep within the reach of these villages, may be the major contributing factors for lower level outbreaks in sheep populations. Background: Goat farming is highly viable and Virudhunagar district of Tamil Nadu has 10 blocks out of which three blocks are situated in lower level foot hills of Western Ghat.

There are no data available regarding Socio economic status of Goat farmers residing in foothill region of western ghat. Hence, this study was aimed to study the Socio economic status of Goat farmers in fringe villages of Western Ghat in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu. Methods: Three blocks are situated in the foot hills of Western Ghat.

In each block, three fringe villages near to the Western Ghat were selected randomly. In each village, 30 goat farmers were selected randomly and data were collected by personal interview through pre tested questionnaire. Most of them were illiterate and lower level exposed to training centre. Hence, it is suggested that government or any other agency take necessary steps to expose them to scientific farming which will improve their socio economic status.

In each village, 30 goat farmers were selected randomly, a total of 270 farmers were selected randomly and data were collected by personal interview through pre tested questionnaire. Socio Economic Status of the Goat Farmers in Fringe Villages of Western Ghat in Virudhunagar District, Tamil NaduEvaluated the growth performance and profitability of broilers chicken fed with different level of vermi meal.

Vermi lower level did not influenced the weight gain, feed intake, feed consumption and dressing percentage of broiler chicken. Background: Lower level rearing systems and feeding have been the emphasis of broiler raisers to in able to meet the costumers demand for high-quality products. In this study, free range management have been introduced that allows the birds to enjoy their natural habitat while utilizing vermi meal as supplemented to commercial feeds.

Method: Evaluated the growth performance and profitability of broilers fed with different levels of vermi meal. Result: Vermi meal did not influenced the weight gain, feed intake, feed consumption and dressing percentage of broiler chicken. Growth Performance lower level Profitability of Broilers Supplemented with Vermi Meal under Free Range Management SystemBackground: Large White Yorkshire (LWY) breed has been extensively used for crossbreeding in India.

Genetic evaluation of Pre-weaning mortality (PWM) in LWY pigs maintained at Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu was done to understand adaptability of the breed to tropical conditions.

Methodology: Pre-weaning mortality was recorded as a binomial trait, for which threshold models have been found to be appropriate. Factors including inbreeding of the individual animal affecting the trait were included as fixed effects in the mixed models used. Conclusion: The pre-weaning mortality of LWY pigs was comparatively lower indicating better adaptability of the breed. Inbreeding levels above 6 per cent were found to increase PWM.

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