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The temperature at which such transition occurs is called the Curie temperature, Tc. Below the Curie temperature the ferromagnetic material is ordered into domains. This magnetic ordering temperature is another key feature of ferromagnetic materials.

Moreover, when the size of a ferromagnetic material is very small, for example, a ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP), ferromagnetism in the material becomes superparamagnetism. Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum superparamagnetic NPs, magnetization can randomly flip direction under the influence of temperature.

Superparamagnetic NPs are one of the important types of NPs applied for CAs for MRI enhancement. More physics on superparamagnetic particles and their application for MRI enhancement are detailed in Section 3. The phenomenological approach of classifying materials gives a general idea about different types of magnetic behavior but does not explain the physical mechanisms of the phenomenon.

Moreover, there are cases where it is not possible to fit materials to one of the three classes. Antiferromagnetic materials have properties of both ferro- and paramagnets. Antiferromagnets are similar Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum ferromagnetic materials in the way magnetic moments are organized: they are also magnetically ordered.

However, unlike ferromagnets, in antiferromagnets all magnetic moments are aligned antiparallel to each other, as shown in Figure 3. This complex form of magnetic ordering occurs due to the specific crystal structure. Magnetic oxides are well-known antiferromagnets and they are composed of two interpenetrating and identical magnetic sublattices, typically called sublattice A and sublattice B.

The interaction between spins in this system leads Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum the antiparallel spontaneous magnetization of these two sublattices. To Celontin (Methsuximide)- Multum understand the origin of this antiparallel alignment of magnetic moments, we consider MnO as an example below.

Eye laser treatment this case, Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum spin-up electron of Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum is left behind.

Such type of indirect interaction (mediated by oxygen in this particular case) is called super-exchange interaction. The small and positive susceptibility decreases with decreasing temperature.

This enables antiferromagnets to respond to an external field in the same manner as paramagnets, and in the meantime, the magnets have a microscopic structure similar to that of ferromagnets. In their paramagnetic state, antiferromagnets do not have a wide range of applications like ferromagnets. This is because of the absence of spontaneous magnetization. However, they can be a good toy system where theoretical models of more complex ferrimagnets can be tested.

Ferrimagnets are similar to both ferromagnets and antiferromagnets. They Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum a spontaneous magnetization below a certain temperature, even in the absence of an external magnetic field, like ferromagnets. At the same time, in terms of magnetic ordering, they are related to antiferromagnets because of the super-exchange mechanism of coupling.

This type of coupling exists in both ferrimagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic materials. Therefore, these two types of magnetic material are both composed of two sublattices which are antiparallelly aligned. Unlike antiferromagnetic materials, the magnetizations of the sublattices in a ferrimagnetic material are not identical in magnitude (Figure 3. Therefore, they do not cancel each other resulting in the existence of a nonzero spontaneous net magnetization like that in ferromagnets.

In ferrimagnetic materials, the magnetizations of the sublattices are not identical and they do not necessarily vary monotonically with temperature, making the net magnetization behavior complicated. In the case of the Li0. The temperature at which the magnetizations are exactly balanced is called the compensation point.

There are structures which have more than two magnetic sublattices and the magnetization behavior there is even more complex with multiple compensation points. The applications of ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials have a long history. The term ferromagnetism comes from the Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum common material which exhibits this property, iron (ferrum in Latin).

Ferrimagnetism, in turn, originates from Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum name ferrites, compounds which demonstrate ferrimagnetic behavior. Ferrites are ferromagnetic transition-metal oxides that have been used for centuries. The very first Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection)- Multum material which was used for navigation compasses is lodestone and it contains a magnetic mineral, magnetite, which is ferrite.

They are now widely used in high-frequency applications due to their high number magnetization and low electrical conductivity. Moreover, with the advancement in processing techniques, such as the ceramic processing technique, ferrites can be produced readily with precisely tuned properties for specific applications. The history of NMR and MRI dates back to the end of the eighteenth century. In 1895, Roentgen discovered the x-ray which enables the visualizing of the interior of the human body without surgical intervention.

Today, besides NMR, there are different medical imaging modalities including x-ray radiography, x-ray computerized tomography (CT), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine. Imaging based on NMR is called MRI for short.



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